Ties That Bind
At the time, no U.S. government official had visited the Hopi (and few would do so before the 1890s). Their unique diplomatic pacquet, in the words of the nineteenth-century ethnologist Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, offered friendship and intercommunication . . . opening, symbolically, a road from the Moqui [Hopi] country to Washington. The packet was in two parts. The first part comprised two pahos, or prayer-sticks, at either end of a long cotton cord, dyed for part of its length [see illustration below]. Separating the dyed from the undyed part of the cord were six varicolored feathers, knotted into a bunch. The pahos represent the Moqui [Hopi] people and the President [respectively], Schoolcraft wrote; the cord is the road which separates them; the [bunch of feathers] tied to the cord is the meeting point.
As well as encoding a message, the pahos were an offering of a kind that Hopi deities such as Taawa, the Sun god, traditionally like to receive. By giving the president pahos worthy of the Sun, the Hopi signaled their expectation that he would reciprocate. Just as the Sun, on receiving the appropriate offerings, would send rain clouds for sustaining life and growth, so, too, the president would send protection for Hopi lives and landsin this instance, protection from assaults by neighboring tribes such as the Navajo.
The second part of the packet comprised a cornstalk cigarette filled with tobacco (to be smoked by the president) and a small cornhusk package that enclosed honey-soaked cornmeal. According to the Tesuque delegation, the honey-meal package was a charm to call down rain from heaven. When the president smoked the cigarette, he would exhale clouds of smoke, which would sympathetically attract the clouds of the sky. Then, when he chewed the cornmeal and spat the wild honey on ground that needed rain, the Tesuque statement concluded, "the Moquis assure him that it [the rain] will come."
In sum, the packet was three things at once: message, offering, and gift of magical power. In conveying those elements, the Hopi sought to open diplomatic relations with the U.S.
Artists conception of a gift carried to Washington in 1852, when the Hopi people sought to initiate diplomatic relations with the United States (the original gift has been lost). One part of the gift was a message proposing a meeting between the two peoples: Two pahos, or prayer-sticks with turkey feathers, represented, respectively, the Hopi people (left) and U.S. President Millard Fillmore (right). The bunch of six feathers tied into the long cotton cord between the pahos indicated the proposed meeting place: Fort Defiance, the seat of the U.S. government in Arizona and the place where six directions (northwest, northeast, southwest, southeast, zenith, and nadir) come together. Attached to each paho was a folded cornhusk that held a small feather, some cornmeal, and a sprig of mountain sagebrush that stood for the Hopi people and lands; the small yellow warbler feather attached to each pair of sticks represented a prayer.
Illustration by Patricia J. Wynne
But their intent appears to have been lost on their recipient. As so often happens when two cultures make contact, deep misunderstandings can arise: What does a gift mean? What, if anything, does the gift giver expect in return? Do the giver and the recipient both assign the same value to the gift? In twenty-five years of ethnographic fieldwork with the Hopi, it has been my goal to learn something of their history and culture. Recently I turned my attention to certain important events, such as the Millard Fillmore episode, that might shed light on how Hopi society changed as the U.S. developed. In that context Hopi gift giving and the ways it functions as a pillar of Hopi social organization have been central to my studies. One lesson of my work shines through: When nations exchange gifts, all the parties would do best to keep in mind the old adage, "Its the thought that counts."
Given the differences between Hopi and Western traditions and culture, perhaps it is not surprising that the Hopi idea of gift is only loosely equivalent to the Western one. In 1852 the Hopi people were still little affected by outside populations, and Hopi land use spread across much of northern Arizona and even into southern Utah [see map below]. At that time, the Hopi lifestyle was traditional, based on farming, foraging, and some pastoralism. Even today, important elements of the subsistence economy persist, though wage labor and small business provide supplemental income.
The Hopi typically divide their work according to gender. Work done by men (such as farming and harvesting of crops) is perceived as a gift to the women; work done by women (such as gardening, gathering of piñon nuts, grasses, wild fruits, berries, and the like) is perceived as a gift to the men. Women also own and manage the distribution of their households goods and crops. In fact, Hopi women control most of the material economic life, whereas Hopi men largely control the ritual and spiritual aspects.
The Hopi take part in an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies, to which a range of specialized offices and privileges is attached. But individuals gain those distinctive social positions not through material wealth but rather through gender and kinship relations, which are ordered in a matrilineal manner. In fact, clan heads and chiefs of religious societies are typically worse off materially than the average member of the clan. Hopi leaders are supposed to be materially poor, and a wealthy individual is often criticized as qahopi, un-Hopi, for failing to share. Wealth and status among the Hopi is thus phrased in ritual terms: a poor person is one without ceremonial prerogatives, not one without money. So averse are the Hopi to material accumulation that in May 2004, for the second time, they voted against casino gambling, despite substantial poverty on the reservation.
Does such a primacy of value placed on ceremonial roles explain the evanescent nature of the gift given to President Fillmore? In what world of meaning did the packet represent great value? Indeed, whats in a gift?
Anthropologists have been making hay of that last question ever since 1925, when the French anthropologist Marcel Mauss published his groundbreaking Essai sur le Don (translated into English as The Gift). Mauss convincingly argued that in small-scale societies (10,000 or fewer persons) gifts are total social facts. What he meant is that, in gift- or barter-based social systems, divisions of social life into discrete domainssuch as economy, politics, law, or religionare meaningless; each sphere interpenetrates and overlaps the others.
|Goods, services, or knowledge given
to an individual or a group are answered with something of equivalent value.
As in strict barter, an exchange in Hopi culture that begins by making a gift to someone does not involve money, but it does require reciprocity. Thus goods, services, or knowledge given to an individual or a group are answered with something of equivalent value. Gifts develop an interconnectedness between Hopi individuals in a way that outright purchases cannot. Furthermore, the Hopi offer gifts in a much broader range of circumstances than people in Western cultures do, and the value of those gifts extends to the religious realm, tying individuals and groups to each other and to the realm of the spirits.
Probably the key to understanding a gift-based system such as that of the Hopi is to recognize that such systems are built on kinship. Kinshipthe godzilla that has driven multitudes of college students screaming from anthropology 101is, in this regard at least, straightforward. It means simply that the great majority of human social activity is framed in terms of reciprocal family ties. Where all personal relationships are cast within the kinship idiom, there are no members of the society who are not kin to me, nor I to them.
Kinship terms encode behavioral expectations as well as familial role. As anthropologists never tire of saying, such terms are primarily social, not biological: obviously if I call fifteen women mother, as the average Hopi can do, I do not assume that each woman physically gave birth to me. But my mothers all have rights and duties in relation to me. And, reciprocally, I have duties and rights with respect to them: in fact, their duties are my rights, and my duties are their rights in the relationship. That is what reciprocity is all about. You give me food, I plant your cornfield, to give a crude example. But, in a kinship society, such a basic structure of mutual expectations forms the foundation for an entire apparatus of courtesy and manners, deference and respect, familiarity or distance. Those expectations are concretely expressed by giftsspontaneous and planned, routine and special, trivial and grand. Gifts are thus communications in a language of social belonging.
So-called gift economies entail a certain kind of sociality, or sense of what it means to belong to a community. In such an economy, one gives a gift to mark social relations built on kinship and altruism,
|In some respects the giver still owns some part of the gift, and it is the intangible connection between the two parties, mediated by the gift, that forms the basis of interpersonal relationships.
In contrast, in exchange economies, commodities dominate social interchange. Competitive markets, governed by the profit motive, connect buyer and seller, and social relations are characterized by individualism. A gift, once given, belongs entirely to the recipient; only when the item given has sentimental value does it keep the bond between giver and recipient alive.
That is not to say the Hopi did not engage in the more impersonal, Western forms of material exchange. In the Hopi language, as in English, several words describe how an item is transferred from one person to another: maqa (to give); hùuya (to barter or trade); and tui (to buy). Those words all antedate the arrival of Europeansand anthropological classifications. Barter and purchase, as well as gifts, have all long been present in Hopi life. Furthermore, gift exchange in the West can also function as it does among the Hopi, as part of kinship obligations or ordinary social life.
What is distinctive about Hopi custom is the fact that the gift economy is responsible for the great majority of exchanges. Furthermore, there is no such thing as a free gift. The strong interpersonal bonds created by a gift make giving almost de rigueur at ceremonial events. Gifts, particularly gifts of food or utensils, are transmitted during ceremonies of personal milestones (at a birth or a marriage), as well as at public gatherings.
For example, at the annual so-called basket dances, girls and women distribute a variety of objects they have collected for the occasion. The dances illustrate the Hopi lack of acquisitiveness. The women form a semicircle and dance and sing; after each song two girls fling gifts into the crowd of men assembled outside the circle. Among the gifts are valuable baskets and buckskins, though inexpensive utensils and manufactured items are also popular. Each man zealously grabs for the flying objects, and if two men happen to catch the same item, both wrestle with the object, often until it has been totally destroyed.
Although gift giving has been a pillar of Hopi society, trade has also flourished in Hopi towns since prehistory, with a network that extended from the Great Plains to the Pacific Coast, and from the Great Basin, centered on present-day Nevada and Utah, to the Valley of Mexico. Manufactured goods, raw materials, and gems drove the trade, supplemented by exotic items such as parrots. The Hopis were producers as well, manufacturing large quantities of cotton cloth and ceramics for the trade. To this day, interhousehold trade and barter, especially for items of traditional manufacture for ceremonial use (such as basketry, bows, cloth, moccasins, pottery, and rattles), remain vigorous.
For hundreds of years, at least, the Hopi traded with the Rio Grande Pueblos to acquire turquoise, heishi (shell necklaces), and buckskins; one long string of heishi, for instance, was worth two Hopi woven cotton mantas. Similarly, songs, dances, and other ritual elements were often exchanged for an agreed-upon equivalent.
The high value the Hopi placed on the items they acquired by trade correlate, in many respects, with the value Europeans placed on them. Silver, for instance, had high value among both Westerners and Native Americans as money and as jewelry. Siiva, the Hopi word both for money and for silver jewelry, was borrowed directly from the English word silver. Paper money itself was often treated the way traditional resources were: older Hopi men bundled it and stored it in trunks, stacked by denomination.
It was not until the 1890s, however, that silver jewelry began to be produced by the Hopi. A man named Sikyatala learned silversmithing from a Zuni man, and his craftsmanship quickly made silver jewelry into treasured adornments. Those among the Hopi who cared for it too much, though, were criticized for vanity; one nickname, Siisiva ([wearing] a lot of silver), characterized a fop.
Some jewels, such as turquoise, traditionally had a sacred value, beyond adornment. Even today, flakes of turquoise are occasionally offered to the spirits in religious ceremonies. Turquoise and shell necklaces appear in many ritual settings, frequently adorning the costumes of katsinas (ceremonial figures) and performers in the social dances.
How much the Hopi value turquoise becomes apparent toward the close of a ritual enactment known as the Clown Ceremony. The clownsmore than mere entertainersrepresent unbridled human impulses. Warrior katsinas arrive to punish the clowns for licentious behavior and teach them good Hopi behavior: modest and quiet in conduct, careful and decorous in speech, abstemious and sharing about food, and unselfish about other things. The clowns fail miserably (and hilariously) at their lessons. Eventually the warrior chief presents an ultimatum: stop flaunting chaos or die. The clown chief then offers him a turquoise necklace as a mortgage on the clowns lives. The warrior chief accepts, the clowns receive a lesser punishment, and community life goes onnot with perfection, but with a human mixture of the virtuous and the flawed.
In Hopi tradition, the first clan among the Hopi, and the one that supplied the kikmongwi, or village chief, was Bear. When other clans arrived, their leaders approached the kikmongwi to request entry into the village. He asked what they had to contribute, such as a beneficial ceremony. So challenged, each clan performed its ceremony, and if successful, say, in producing rain, its members were invited to live in the village, assigned an area for housing, and granted agricultural lands to work in the valley below. In return, the clan agreed to perform its ceremony, as part of a cycle of ceremonies throughout the year, and to intermarry with the other clans of the community, a practice called exogamous marriage. In that way, the Snake clan brought the Snake Dance, the Badger clan introduced principal katsina ceremonies, and the Fire clan brought the Warriors society to the Hopi village. The villages thus came to be made up of mutually interdependent clans.
One of the essential principles expressed here, and the very cornerstone of Hopi society and sociality, is the exchange of mutually beneficial giftsceremonies for land, people in exogamous marriageand the relationships reconfigured by those exchanges.
|The gods must be propitiated with offerings of ritual gifts,
and thus reminded of their dependence upon and obligations to mortal people.
The items sent to President Fillmore conform to the archetypal Hopi offering. Seeking to incorporate the president into the Hopi world, the appropriate strategy was to give him valuable presents that sought something in return, and to make sure he understood what that meant. Addressing him with prayer-sticks the way they might address the Sun father, the delegation sought to engage him within the gifting and kinship idiom. The instructions delivered with the packeteven across a succession of translationsspoke clearly of the Hopi intent. As with the turquoise mortgage of the katsina clowns, the idea of reciprocity is central. If the president wants more of, say, rain-magic, he must give back: he must receive the gift and its political proposal, and provide something in return.
Alas, the magico-religious sensibility of the Hopi worldview and the offer of serial reciprocity clashed with Manifest Destiny and the assimilationist ideology of Fillmores presidency. Historical records make it clear that he did not smoke the cigarette, nor chew nor spit the honey-meal, and, so far as we know, he sent no formal reply. None of the objects has survived.
What the five men of the Tesuque delegation received no doubt perplexed them as much as the packet they delivered perplexed the president: Each man was given a Millard Fillmore peace medal, a Western-style business suit, and a daguerreotype portrait (all now lost, as well). They also got a tour of standard destinations in Washington, including the Patent Office and the Smithsonian Institution, where they were introduced to the wonders of electricity, according to a contemporary newspaper account in the Daily National Intelligencer. In their meeting with Fillmore they heard the president say he hoped the Great Spirit would bless and sustain them till they again returned to the bosom of their families.
Certainly Fillmore expressed the goodwill of the U.S. toward the Pueblos in general and to the Tesuque party in particularwho, in all probability, conveyed that sentiment to the Hopi. But the dissonance between gift and exchange economies helps explain why the Hopis did not achieve their goals. (The U.S. did not protect the Hopi from intrusions by the Navajo or by anyone else.)
The Hopi sought to embrace the president in their own sphere of sociality and mutualityto extend kinship to him. But in a social system like the presidents, where gifts are not total social facts, the political belongs in a separate domain from the religious or the economic, and kinship is secondary. The gift of a jeweled sword, for instance, might have impressed Fillmore more, but for the Hopi, its strictly symbolic valueas an item for display, but with no political, religious, or social valuewould not have ensured a return, a social connection built on mutual exchange. More, by Hopi standards, presenting such a gift might have seemed inhospitable and materialistic, indeed, undiplomatic and even selfish. Thus does understanding fail between nations.
Peter M. Whiteley is co-curator of the exhibition Totems to Turquoise: Native North American Jewelry Arts of the Northwest and Southwest, which will be featured at the American Museum of Natural History from October 30, 2004, to July 10, 2005. A curator in the Division of Anthropology at the Museum, Whiteley also teaches anthropology at Columbia University and at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. His doctoral degree, from the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, was based on fieldwork with the Hopi in the U.S. Southwest. He is the author of several books on Hopi culture and history, including Rethinking Hopi Ethnography (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998), which won the 1999 Border Regional Library Associations Southwest Book Award.
Copyright © Natural History Magazine, Inc., 2004